Christian Roman Empire
The main heirs of Constantine was the son Constantius II , and his nephew Julian the Apostate , who tried unsuccessfully to restore the pagan religion.
After him , between 363 and 395 , the empire , which is still unified , becomes a Christian .
The discovery of the relics of the Holy Cross by Elena is an episode of great symbolic for Christians in the fourth century . For example the relic of the Holy Nail in Milan , which however has not the form of a nail , but with a brake , such as the one that puts you to the horses .
Ambrose interpreted this as a sign that the limit should ask the Emperor . He can not break the laws of human justice. The bishop becomes a figure so important at this time that Sant ' Ambrogio inhibits the emperor from the Eucharist , until he repents of having ordered the massacre of the Thessalonians , after the commander of the guards, a goth , had been killed in course of several clashes that followed a horse race.
Not even the emperor can be above the laws that govern the life , the life of society, but Theodosius, who recognizes the authority of Ambrose, he repents . And then began at this time the complex relationship between church and state, which will feature throughout the Middle Ages .
On the other hand, another relic of the nail of the cross held together with six gold plates of the imperial crown .
This meant that for Christians, the empire was not only restrained by Christ, as seen before, but also crowned , so it was the duty of Christians not only do not oppose the empire, but to defend and protect the wave uncivilized barbarians , more and more threatening the borders .
For this reason, for Christians, with a few exceptions , especially in the past, such as the Montanists , although military service is important and no one can shirk this duty to the public , such as taxes .
Already in the past it was possible to become a "Roman" and this irrespective of origin .
Already the ancient Romans slaves were not considered inferior to " nature," but for " history " as it belonged to subject populations and defeats.
Already they considered the possibility of the liberation of the slave, and his condition had already improved.
Continuing in this process , with the Christian Roman Empire :
1 . the owners were no longer able to brand slaves , as men are like everyone else and not beasts ;
2 . were abolished public games , because in the course of these many slaves as gladiators , dying just to satisfy the desire for amusement of the spectators.
3 . no longer had the right to separate families of slaves, only for economic reasons
4 . nobody could no longer kill his own slave
5 . the emperor proclaimed slavery an offense against human dignity, even if it persisted for much longer , because the time was not yet ready , and the church wanted to reform society , not subvert it .
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